small animal nutrition, health and management
December 6, 2020
Food trials for adverse reactions to food associated with clinical signs involving the GI tract should continue for ≥2 wk, whereas food trials for clinical signs involving dermatologic conditions should continue for ≥10–12 wk. The most common risk factors for DM in cats are obesity and increasing age. Hypokalemia is the most frequent electrolyte abnormality, and it can be exacerbated by too aggressive reintroduction to calories. Diabetic dogs usually require insulin twice a day, and it is recommended that dogs be fed first to ensure they eat before administering insulin. The most common mineral composition for uroliths in dogs are primarily struvite (magnesium-ammonium-phosphate) and calcium oxalate, followed by urate and cysteine. Dr. Peter Constable of the Veterinary Manual Editorial Board discusses the administration... Overview of Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Resistance, © 2020 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA, Characteristics of Small-bowel and Large-bowel Diarrhea, Type I Hypersensitivity : Systemic Anaphylaxis (Generalized Anaphylactic Reactions), Gastric Dilation and Volvulus in Small Animals, Malabsorption Syndromes in Small Animals. Two of these diets have high levels of sodium and, therefore, are contraindicated in cats with underlying renal disease. German Shepherds are at increased risk of developing antibiotic-responsive diarrhea (formerly known as small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth), Doberman Pinschers and Rottweilers are at increased risk of parvoviral enteritis, and Yorkshire Terriers are at increased risk of lymphangiectasia. Balchem Animal Nutrition & Health COVID-19 Response & Action Plan Through nutrition innovations and manufacturing advances, Balchem is leading the way to a healthier and more sustainable world. The two most common uroliths in the lower urinary tract of cats are magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) and calcium oxalate, although other mineral types are possible. Most struvite stones in dogs are induced by infection with urease-producing bacteria. Some dogs develop DM as a result of chronic pancreatitis causing widespread destruction of both endocrine and exocrine pancreatic tissue. Producing a dilute urine reduces the concentration of minerals and crystals that form uroliths. Simplified homemade diets are also possible using the same protein sources suggested above (or other ingredient sources the owner wants to test). * *2007-2017 PERQ and Essential Media Studies It's Free & Simple. Primary causes of GI disease are numerous and include adverse reaction to food, infections (bacterial, parasitic, fungal, and viral), inflammatory bowel disease, neoplasia, and toxin- or drug-induced. The basic principles of nutrition are explained, with special attention given to the use of nutrition as a tool in the management of the patient. Course Options Companion Animal Nutrition (ANSC 422; 3 credits) Required for certificate and pre-requisite for ANSC 526 - This course will cover the digestive physiology and basic nutritional considerations of companion animals, with primary focus on dogs and cats.Topics will include macronutrient and micronutrient digestion, metabolism, and function, nutritional idiosyncrasies of … Most diets formulated for weight loss also have increased levels of dietary fiber. Food aversions can also occur as a result of force-feeding. Longterm goals are to maintain ideal body condition score. (Also see Food Allergy and see Type I Hypersensitivity : Systemic Anaphylaxis (Generalized Anaphylactic Reactions).). Both dogs and cats can develop dilated cardiomyopathy secondary to taurine deficiency. Food intolerance is a type of adverse reaction that does not involve the immune system, eg, food poisoning. In dogs, adding canned pumpkin or psyllium to the diet is also sometimes effective in mild cases of constipation. Proper management to prevent and control disease has historically been a higher priority in production animal medicine than in small animal medicine. Vitamin B12 deficiency develops most commonly from intestinal malabsorption; however, it can also result from short-gut syndrome. Using appropriate feeding practices is one of the most important components of maintaining companion animal health. Diseases of the small intestine and pancreas often lead to a vague clinical syndrome characterized by weight loss, vomiting, diarrhea (with or without steatorrhea), and changes in appetite. Dietary management varies depending on the specific mineral composition of the urolith; however, regardless of composition, diluting the urine is important. The trial diet should be exclusively fed for the recommended length of time, and all treats, snacks, and table foods eliminated unless they are made of the exact same ingredients as the trial diet or contain a hydrolyzed protein source. Nonetheless, some diabetic cats may have concurrent diseases for which the dietary management takes precedent. Severe cases may require total parenteral nutrition. Vomiting, diarrhea, or refeeding syndrome can be a consequence of being too aggressive with reintroduction of calories. Animal Sciences is the study of the basic principles of science and their application to the biological, economic, social, and environmental aspects as they relate to animals and the society we live in. On average, there is no price advantage in making a homemade diet over using commercially prepared foods. In addition, more dietary options are available for enteral support than for parenteral support. Because recurrent episodes of pancreatitis are common, feeding a complete and balanced low-fat diet is recommended for longterm management. Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. Hence, given all the possible etiologies and limited diagnostics available, any animal suspected of having an adverse reaction to food should undergo a food trial. This life-threatening condition requires aggressive nutritional support to reverse the changes in the liver. Nutrition ... Nestlé Purina Companion Animal Nutrition Summit 2017. The usual management of cachexia is to feed smaller amounts of a more calorically dense (ie, higher fat content), complete and balanced diet more frequently (3–6 meals/day). However, it is now known that adipose tissue is not inert, but rather a major endocrine organ that produces hormones and protein factors and signals called adipokines. Although sodium-supplemented diets are helpful in cats with FIC, they are contraindicated in cats with underlying renal disease. The objective of dietary management in renal failure is to lessen the metabolic demands on the kidneys and to diminish metabolic end-products that cannot be readily excreted. The nutritional requirements of many sick dogs and cats are qualitatively the same as those of healthy ones; however, they differ in the amounts required—certain nutrients may be needed in greater amounts or may need to be restricted. Fluid needs must be met, and parenteral fluid support may be needed in many cats, at least initially. Enteral support is more physiologic, cheaper, and safer than parenteral support. Struvite stones can be medically dissolved, after which calculolytic therapeutic diets are usually unnecessary. When using a home-prepared diet, all processed meats, cheeses, bread, heart, kidney, liver, salted fats, whole eggs, and snack foods should be avoided. Fluid rates must be sufficient to account for maintenance needs as well as ongoing losses. New animal nutrition careers are added daily on SimplyHired.com. The brain is one of the most metabolically active tissues; thus, providing aggressive nutritional support early is essential. Although these diets are helpful in many dogs and cats with adverse reactions to food, they are expensive, and some animals with allergies to the protein sources in these diets will still react to the typical hydrolyzed protein diet. Often, the dog has multiple episodes of vomiting. It is advisable to take a stepwise approach to reintroduction of calories, and multiple small meals are often tolerated better than large meals. Brain trauma, burns, and sepsis are all conditions with high metabolic demands, and the amount of energy needed varies among animals. Take a quick interactive quiz on the concepts in How Nutrition Affects Farm Animal Health or print the worksheet to practice offline. Nutritional Management of Hospitalized Small Animals offers veterinarians, veterinary students and technicians a comprehensive reference to the latest information relating to the principles and practice of nutritional support in small animals that require hospitalization. Regardless of the formula used, the calculated caloric intake is only a starting point and may require modification based on response. Eating some of a diet that is less than optimal is better than none of the “right” one. Respiration 4. Severe cases can result in sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Dietary recommendations may vary depending on where the diarrhea is localized and the underlying cause. The goal in treating pancreatitis is to minimize stimulation of the exocrine function of the pancreas until inflammation has decreased. Dr. Thus, food consumption and body weight and condition should be monitored. In addition, research in dogs is also showing that higher protein levels than what are typically used in most therapeutic renal diets is beneficial as long as the diets are phosphorus restricted. We offer state of the art diagnostics which allow us to diagnose and treat your pet quickly and comprehensively. Animal production research in the Department of Animal Science focuses on improving livestock production systems, management practices, animal health and welfare, and food quality and safety. In encephalopathic cats with hepatic lipidosis, dietary protein may need to be restricted but should not be severely so. Obviously, therapeutic diets do not help if they are not consumed. It is most common in Dachshunds, English Bulldogs, French Bulldogs, and Newfoundlands. A folic acid and B12 (cobalamin) deficiency also produces anemia. Cats must continue to consume adequate calories and nutrients. An adverse reaction to a food is a clinically abnormal response to any type of food ingested. Other therapies such as hyposensitization and flea control are necessary in animals with concurrent disease. In view of these values, commercial dog and cat diets cannot even be classified as mild sodium restriction. Animal Nutrition Conferences 2020/2021/2022 is for the researchers, scientists, scholars, engineers, academic, scientific and university practitioners to present research activities that might want to attend events, meetings, seminars, congresses, workshops, summit, and symposiums. Obesity is the most common nutritional health problem in dogs and cats, and obesity-associated health risks continue to increase. The objective of dietary management is to provide a balanced diet with increased amounts of insoluble fiber (10%–25% dry-matter basis to effect) or moderately fermentable fiber in dogs or a highly digestible balanced diet containing prebiotics in cats. The Nutrition Service at the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center offers either face to-face or telephone appointments to pet owners and case consultations to veterinarians practicing in Minnesota and throughout the country. It is estimated that 24%–44% of dogs and 25%–30% of cats seen by veterinarians are overweight or obese, and ~50% of dogs 5–10 yr old are overweight or obese. Driven by an active and dedicated membership, PFI is the industry's public and media relations resource, representative before state and federal agencies, organizer of seminars and educational programs, sponsor of and clearinghouse for research, and liaison with other organizations. Urinary tract infections in cats without renal failure or diabetes mellitus is uncommon. Not all probiotics are created equal—a probiotic effective in one species may be ineffective in another. Some dogs with hyperlipidemia are asymptomatic. Therefore, in dogs without encephalopathy, providing adequate intake of energy and a high-quality protein is essential to ensure a positive protein and energy balance and enable hepatic regeneration. The basic recipe should closely resemble “complete and balanced,” but single sources of protein can be sequentially tested and replaced. Small Animal Nutrition is an essential new text relating the theory of digestion and nutrition to practical application in everyday veterinary practice. Risk factors for developing obesity include 1) lack of exercise, 2) breed predisposition (breeds with an increased risk include Labrador Retrievers, Miniature Schnauzers, Dachshunds, Shetland Sheepdogs, Cocker Spaniels, Beagles, Basset Hounds, and Cairn Terriers), 3) increasing age (metabolic rate decreases with age as lean muscle mass decreases and fat mass increases, 4) neutering, 5) certain endocrine disorders, and 6) certain drugs, such as corticosteroids and phenobarbital. If renal failure is also present, protein and phosphorus intake must be restricted. Most DM in dogs is type I (insulin dependent) due to immune-mediated destruction of pancreatic islet cells (see Diabetes Mellitus in Dogs and Cats). In contrast, it is equally important not to unnecessarily restrict protein intake, because protein requirements are as high or higher in dogs with liver disease than in dogs without liver disease. Feeding Strategies in the Management of Behavior Problems in Cats During Weight Loss ALL TOPIC ARTICLES. The most successful weight loss programs include a combination of caloric restriction and exercise. Diets reduce risk factors for developing uroliths but unfortunately do not prevent recurrence, which is common for calcium oxalate. Dogs and cats 10%–20% above ideal body weight are considered overweight. Animals with liver disorders are frequently anorectic. Newer research has also shown the benefits of antioxidants in the management of CKD in dogs. Because obesity can be a contributing factor in CHF, a weight management program is needed in obese animals in addition to sodium restriction. Sodium restriction often requires a special diet, although some manufacturers provide veterinary therapeutic diets for heart disorders. Obesity is the excessive accumulation of adipose tissue—for dogs and cats, >20% above ideal body weight. Much of the research with food animals is directed toward improving the utilization of carbohydrates, fat, protein, and fiber for production of meat, milk, and eggs. Upon completion of his PhD in 2007, Dr. Feeding a feline growth diet or a calorically dense recovery-type diet also increases protein and energy intake in smaller feedings. If this is ignored, owner compliance is unlikely. Fever increases energy requirements because of increased metabolic activity—a 1°F (0.5°C) rise causes an increase in caloric need of ~7 kcal/kg body wt/day. Malabsorption and maldigestion are often secondary to other underlying GI disease, such as inflammatory bowel disease. A careful dietary history must be obtained from the pet owner before selecting the type of diet. In primary hyperlipidemia, the abnormalities can be familial and might be genetic, as has been suggested in Miniature Schnauzers. If the dog appears painful or uncomfortable, medications to manage pain as well as plasma transfusions should be administered. The trusted provider of veterinary information since 1955. Once vomiting has ceased, small amounts of water are offered first. Frequent feeding of small meals (4–6/day) lowers the amount of nutrients or metabolites that require hepatic processing at a single time, thereby imposing less metabolic demand on the liver. Two approaches are used for dietary management: 1) feeding an alkalinizing, protein-restricted diet low in oxalate, or 2) feeding a diet supplemented with sodium to encourage water consumption and production of dilute urine. Although insulin sensitivity remains high in most diabetic dogs, no residual insulin production is left in the pancreas, and exogenous insulin therapy is required. Applied Veterinary Clinical Nutrition provides current, clinically relevant nutritional advice intended for use in daily canine and feline practice. If the animal is underweight, the food intake should be increased or the caloric content of the diet increased. Which of the following factors might compromise the quality of colostrum? Starvation is never a safe or humane way to cause weight loss. For diabetic dogs receiving insulin therapy, the nutritional requirements of any concurrent disease may take precedence over the dietary therapy for diabetes. Most animals require a supplemental source of iron administered either PO or IM to correct severe iron deficiency and, depending on the underlying cause, may need to continue receiving a supplemental source of iron indefinitely. Assuming that an animal will eat a therapeutic diet when it gets hungry enough is inappropriate, and allowing an animal to starve in an attempt to stimulate its appetite is never recommended. Cats most commonly develop type 2 DM, although some cats may develop type 1, often secondary to chronic pancreatitis. (Also see Malabsorption Syndromes in Small Animals.). This issue of Veterinary Clinics: Small Animal Practice guest edited by Dr. Dottie Laflamme is dedicated to Small Animal Nutrition. The ever-evolving role of animals, and their caregivers, in modern society is creating job opportunities and career paths unheard of just a few years ago. Health problems associated with obesity include decreased life expectancy, impaired quality of life, chronic inflammation, pulmonary and cardiovascular problems, exercise and heat intolerance, joint and musculoskeletal problems (eg, arthritis), compromised immune function, pancreatitis (dogs), diabetes mellitus and hepatic lipidosis (cats), and increased morbidity and mortality during and after anesthesia. Urethral plugs are most commonly composed of either mucus or mucus and struvite crystals. Most treats are not complete and balanced, so they should be restricted to <10% of the total caloric intake to avoid causing nutrient imbalances. FLUTD (see Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease) has many possible underlying causes, including urolithiasis, urethral plugs, urinary tract infection, neoplasia, neurologic abnormalities, feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC), and anatomic defects, The underlying cause of FLUTD must be determined, because treatment for one cause may be contraindicated for other causes. Larger esophagostomy or gastrostomy tubes can also accommodate critical care diets and blenderized therapeutic diets. Recommendations for lifestyle changes should be done in the context of maintaining the owner-animal bond. Food reactions are classified using specific terminology. Failed cardiac contractility may contribute to CHF, and taurine supplementation should be used to exclude a possible depletion of this amino acid in cardiac muscle. In dogs with hepatic encephalopathy, reduced levels of high-quality protein may be necessary to reduce the accumulation of ammonia and other hepatic toxins. Cachexia is most commonly associated with cases of neoplasia or chronic renal or cardiac disease. Probiotics are defined as nutritional supplements containing live, viable, beneficial bacteria in sufficient numbers to provide a health benefit. There is good evidence that animals with International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) Stage 3 and 4 CKD benefit from dietary management, and there is likely to be benefit in changing the diet early in the course of renal disease, such as that associated with IRIS Stage 2 CKD. However, two breeds of dogs, Dalmatians and English Bulldogs, are predisposed to developing urate uroliths without overt liver dysfunction. Dogs and cats can be maintained at home with tube feedings (except in the case of jejunostomy tubes) after the procedure has been accepted by the animal and fully explained to the owner and if the frequency of feeding is something the owner can reasonably manage and the animal can tolerate. 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